The first indications of inhabitation of Bali date back 2000 years. The first recorded history, such as engraved stone pillars date from 914A.D. These archaeological remnants show the influences of Indian Hinduism and Buddhism.
In time, East Javanese rulers increased their spheres of influence. Ties were made through marriage and frequently from wars. From the 12th century, when the Java dynasty influenced affairs, the relationship between Bali and Java was completed. The development of a recognizable culture began. The era of the Majapahits saw this grow further, but with their demise in the 15th century and the ascendancy of Islam, ties with Java lessened.
In 1597, the first Dutch expedition reached the shores of Bali. Through the 17th and 18th centuries wars were fought with the Javanese and Bali exerted control over Lombok. At this time, the structure of control in Bali became more stable with the establishment of specific kingdoms, but by the middle of the 19th century more and more concessions were being made to the Dutch. By the early 20th century colonial management was in place. Following World War Two, President Sukarno, born to a Balinese mother, proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. In 1965 there was a coup and in 1967 General Suharto replaced him as leader, introducing the “New Order”. Along with the New Order came the development of the tourism industry, which has come to dominate the daily lives of most Balinese.